Terrorism and Security Challenges in Nigeria’s Socio–Political Development
1 Department of Political Science, Federal University Lafia, NIGERIA2 Department of Sociology, University of Calabar, NIGERIA* Corresponding Author
Mediterranean Journal of Social & Behavioral Research, 3(2), June 2019, 29-36, https://doi.org/10.30935/mjosbr/9591
OPEN ACCESS 485 Views 336 Downloads
Terrorism is a global phenomenon. It is the use of violence and intimidation to coerce for various reasons. In recent times, the spate of terrorist attacks by various groups seeking political and religious reforms in Nigeria is alarming and has become worrisome as they pose a serious threat to Nigeria’s security. Furthermore, they are gradually destroying public confidence in the nation’s security system. Conditions which support the development and growth of terrorism in Nigeria range from socio-economic factors such as poverty to religion. This paper examines terrorism in Nigeria, its causes and implications for Nigerian Democracy. Data for the study were drawn primarily from secondary sources as well as the authors’ knowledge of the Nigerian political scene. The paper argues that terrorism has adverse implications for Nigeria’s security. Socio-economic transformation, security awareness and sensitization and collaboration among security agents among others are advocated as possible solutions to the menace.
Keywords: terrorism, conflict, crises, democracy, national security
Ajodo-Adebanjoko, A., Ojua, T., & Okorie, N. (2019). Terrorism and Security Challenges in Nigeria’s Socio–Political Development. Mediterranean Journal of Social & Behavioral Research, 3(2), 29-36. https://doi.org/10.30935/mjosbr/9591
- Ajodo-Adebanjoko, A. (2012). The Challenges of Ethno-religious Conflict. Jos. Journal of Applied Psychology, 6(11 & 12), 47-55.
- Bakker, E. (2006). Jihadi Terrorists in Europe, Their Characteristics and the Circumstances in Which They JoinedTerrorists in Europe: An Exploratory Study. The Hague: Clingendael.
- Bandura A. (1973). Aggression: A Social Learning Analyses. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
- Boko Haram. (2012). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boko_Haram
- Campbell, K. (2001). “When is ‘terrorist’ a subjective term?”. In Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/2001/0927/p16s2-wogi.html
- Charturvdi, A. K. (2006). Dictionary of Political Science. Nigeria: EPP Books Services Nigeria Ltd.
- Eboh, M. (2010). Existence of Internal Terrorism in Nigeria. Available at http://newsflavour.com/worldafrica/existence-of-interna-terror
- Fabiyi, O. (2008). Al-Qaeda plans to bomb Nigeria – Okiro. Punch, 10 May.
- Freytag, A., Krüger J. J, Meierrieks, D., & Schneider, F. (2011). The origins of terrorism: Cross-country estimates of socio-economic determinants of terrorism. European Journal of Political Economy, 27(Supplement 1), S5-S16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpoleco.2011.06.009
- Goldstein, J., & Pevehouse, C. J. (2012). International Relations. United States: Pearson Britain: Oxford University Press.
- Karacasulu, N. (2006). Security and Globalization in the Context of International Terrorism. Numbia: Politika.
- Maclean, A., & Macmillan, I. (2003). Oxford Concise Dictionary of Politics. Great.
- Magstadt, T. M. (2011). Understanding Politics, Ideas, Institutions and Issues. Canada: WADSWORTH Cengage Learning.
- Njoku, E. T. (2011). Globalization and Terrorism in Nigeria. Available at: http://www.foreignpolicyjournal.com/2011/08/13/globalization-and-terrorism-in-nigeria/
- Odua Peoples’ Congress - Terrorist Organisation Profile. (2013, June 14). Available at www.start.umd.edu
- Ogundiya, S., & Amzat, J. (2008). Nigeria and the Threats of Terrorism: Myth or Reality. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 10(2), 165-189.
- Okoro, K. (2010). Religion and Terrorism: A Socio-Historical Re-Consideration. Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences, 2(2), 550-576.
- Onuoha, F. C. (2012). The Audacity of the Boko Haram: Background, Analysis and Emerging Trend. Security Journal, 25(2), 134-151. https://doi.org/10.1057/sj.2011.15
- Oodua Peoples Congress. (2013, June 14). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oodua_Peoples_Congress
- Oyeniyi, A. B. (2010). Terrorism in Nigeria: Groups, Activities, and Politics. International Journal of Politics and Good Governance, 1(1.1), Quarter I.
- Pham, J. P. (2012). Boko Haram’s Evolving Threat. Africa Security Brief No. 20, Africa Center for Strategic Studies. Available at: https://africacenter.org/publication/boko-harams-evolving-threat/
- Responding to the Emerging Trends of Terrorism in Nigeria Conference Proceedings (2011). Monograph Series. No 16. CLEEN Foundation.
- Roy, O. (2003, March 1). EuroIslam: The Jihad Within? The National Interest. Retrieved from https://nationalinterest.org/article/euroislam-the-jihad-within-517
- Saggar, S. (2006). The one per cent world: Managing the myth of Muslim religious extremism. The Political Quarterly, 77(3), 314-327. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-923X.2006.00804.x
- Silke, A. (2008). Holy warriors: Explaining the psychological processes of Jihad radicalization. European Journal of Criminology, 5(1), 99-123. https://doi.org/10.1177/1477370807084226
- Stratfor. (2010, June 15). Nigeria: AQIM attempts to expand. Stratfor. Retrieved from http://www.stratfor.com/analysis/20100615_nigeria_aqim_attempts_expand
- Terrorism and National Security: Who Really Is Winning This War? Retrieved from https://thewillnigeria.com
- Terrorism. (2012). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/terrorism
- The Holy Bible, Authorised King James Version.
- Ukpai, O. (2011). Blacklisting of Nigeria as the New Den of Terrorists? The Perspective of a Nigerian Student in the U.K. Ìrìnkèrindò: a Journal of African Migration, (5).
- UN Reform (2005). United Nations.
- US offer $23m ransom on Shekau, other Boko Haram leaders available at www.thenigerianvoice.com/nvnews/115 Accessed 13/6/2013
- Walker, A. (2009, July 31). Brutal reality of Nigeria killing. BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/8178011.stm
- White, R. J. (2011). Terrorism and Homeland Security. USA: Cengage Learning.
- Would you Support the Return of Bakassi Boys in Anambra State. Available at https://www.nairaland.com/314360/support-return-bakassi-boys-anambara Accessed 14/6/2013